Punjab an important player in Indo-Pak Politics

 by: Trividesh Miani

Presented on the two Punjabs at the Asian Studies Conference held at Binghamton on October 26th and 27th 2007.


Structure of the Paper:

 This paper is divided into four sections. The first section primarily talks about the geographical location of the Punjab and its political, economic and geographic importance within South Asia . The second section, introduces the concept of “Punjab” as a “corridor of peace” between India and Pakistan . The next section analyzes the reasons for this aspect being ignored by South Asian scholars and Policy makers. The final section talks about some of the important developments which have paved the way for “ Punjab ” emerging as an important player in the Indo-Pak peace movement in the last four years. It also analyzes the causes for such a situation.  The conclusion talks about the relevance of “Punjab-Punjab” for South Asia and globally.


Section 1 


Geographical Location and the Partition of Punjab :

 At the outset, it would be important to familiarize all of you with the term “Punjab” and it’s geographical location (though I presume, that most, if not all of you would be more then familiar with the Punjab and its geographical location). The word Punjab , means “Land of the Five Rivers” in Persian. The five rivers are Sutlej, Beas, Jhelum, Chenab and Ravi . In the pre-1947 epoch, Punjab was an important geographical unit of South Asia, with Afghanistan to its West, the Central Indian Plateau to it’s East, Kashmir to its North and Sindh and Rajasthan to its South [i] .After the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, the larger part of Punjab went to Pakistan, while a much smaller portion merged with India. Three rivers (Sutlej, Beas and Ravi) remained with the Indian side of Punjab while two (Jhelum, Chenab) went to Pakistan . In 1965, the Indian side of Punjab further got trifurcated into the states of Haryana and Himachal. In the present day, Punjab is a region that encompasses Northern India and Eastern Pakistan . Punjab is bounded on the north by the vast Himalayan ranges, which divide it from China, Tibet and Kashmir; on the east by the river Yamuna, the North-Western Provinces and the Chinese Empire; on the south by Sind, the river Sutlej, which separates it from Bhawalpur, and Rajputana; and on the west by the Sulaiman range, which divides it from Baluchistan, and Afghanistan, which joins the Khyber[ii].

 While there has been a great deal of research on the impact of Partition on the sub continent, few individuals actually realize the ramifications of the partition of 1947 for the Punjab, not only in terms of the immediate impact which included, large scale incendiary, casualties and mass migration, but the long term impact it had on creating a schism between “Punjabis” a people who followed the same traditions, spoke the same language, had the same names, same heroes, folk tales and considered themselves one race and nation, while believing in a common ethos of “Punjabiat” [iii].

 While the spoken language of all Punjabis is Punjabi, folk tales like Heer Ranjha, and Sahiba Mirza considered the sub-continental equivalent of Romeo and Juliet bond all Punjabis. Apart from cultural commonalities, heroes too are common and actually still remain. Some prominent examples of common heroes on both sides are Guru Nanak Dev founder of the Sikh faith who is revered by both Sikhs and Muslims, Waris Shah, Baba Bulle Shah and Baba Farid all Sufi saints respected on both sides of the border and freedom fighters like Bhagat Singh [iv]. It is also crucial to understand that the partition of 1947 also resulted in the division of a large, well developed and closely knit agrarian economy[v].

  Punjab as a part of academic discourse

 Both globally and in South Asia, the term “ Punjab ” is familiar for a myriad of reasons. For historians, it is important as it has been the cradle of the Indus Civilization [vi], a common culture called “Punjabiat”, the breeding ground for various sects and religions like the Bhakti Movement, and Sikhism, not to overlook the fact, that it was a “garrison state” for the British [vii]:

 “ Punjab became the popularly acclaimed “sword arm of the Raj”, maintaining an intimate association with the military by serving as the principal recruiting ground of the Indian Army for more then healf a century, from the late 1880s to the end of colonial rule in 1947”

 Even post independence and partition, the Punjab continued to be an important breeding ground for the Pakistani and Indian army as will be discussed later in the paper. Just as the British built the edifice for the Punjab , to be a breeding ground for the military, their economic policies also resulted in the Punjabs being breadbaskets of their respective countries [viii].  In fact, East Punjab is known globally for being one of the Green Revolution.  Punjab is thus an important component of South Asia ’s politics, culture and economy.


 Section 2

An area unexplored: Punjab the possible “corridor of Indo-Pak peace”

 During the course of this paper, I will explore an area which has not been researched enough, both in the sub-continent and outside.  The role of  Punjab as a possible “corridor of peace” between India and Pakistan [ix]. This line of thought has begun to emerge quite strongly as policy makers have begun to realize that Punjab on both sides has a pivotal role to play in acting as a  bridge between both the countries, the reasons  amongst others are cultural commonalities, economic interests and most importantly the strategic location of both sides. While earlier Punjab was the bone of contention on both sides, sixty years after partition, Punjab is the interface between both countries as interactions have seen a manifold increase and Punjabis on both sides (especially the Indian side) have begun to realize that the biggest sufferer of war in economic terms is the Punjab, while the biggest beneficiary of Indo-Pak peace can be the Punjab [x].

 It has rightly been stated that [xi] :

 Developments taking place outside the international spotlight—not in Delhi and Islamabad , but in Amritsar and Faisalabad , Lahore and Ludhiana —could potentially transform the nature of India-Pakistan relations. In such places, exchanges between ordinary Punjabis could snowball into a movement that could overcome the longstanding enmity of these two nuclear-armed neighbors. This effort even has an official slogan: "Reviving the Spirit of Punjab , Punjabi, and Punjabiyat."

 Apart from occasional articles and papers, two books, the “Indus Saga” and “South Asian Cooperation and the Role of the Punjabs” have expounded this concept. The former talks about the natural affinity between the Punjabs as a result of it being an integral and in separable part of the Indus Culture while hinting that Indian Punjab can be a conduit for peace with Pakistan [xii]:

 “It is significant that the only politically noteworthy attempt to fuse these two civilizations into one took root in the area of the vital watershed itself, the virtual no man’s land between the two streams of water and two civilizations: eastern Punjab

 The latter too posits, that “Punjab” is the future corridor of peace between India and Pakistan as a result of cultural affinity between the two provinces, high incentives of economic cooperation and the Punjab dominated Pakistani establishment[xiii] .

 Before analyzing, the role of Punjab as a corridor, I will discuss some of the reasons why Punjab has never been thought of as an interface between India and Pakistan .

 Apart from this, the role of “ Punjab ” is also important to study as one of the main bonding factors between both Punjabs is the common culture and heritage, inspite of different faiths. The Punjab-Punjab bonhomie started at a time when other parts of the world were busy trying to counter the Muslim-Non Muslim schism, post 9-11

 Section 3

  Why the “ Punjab angle” has got obliterated in Indo-Pak literature:

  Kashmir , Strategic Issues dominate South Asian discourse

 While there are a myriad of reasons for this phenomenon, the primary reason is the fact that only a handful of scholars have actually worked on this idea.  In fact apart from the two books mentioned above there are only a handful of South Asian scholars like Ian Talbot, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Alyssa Ayres, Imran Ali who have done cogent research on Punjab acting as a bridge between India and Pakistan . All other efforts have been based more on nostalgia and emotion, be they novels on partition or songs by various artists. More often then not, South Asian literature always focuses either on Kashmir and strategic Issues. Studies of Punjab have been restricted to partition or their roles within their respective countries[xiv]. Apart from this the other significant reasons for Punjab being relegated to the background are:

  The Partition of 1947 resulted in creating a deep schism between Punjabis on both sides 

     To begin with, it was Punjab which bore the brunt of partition in 1947. A recent book on partition aptly states that:

 Punjab, in the north-west of undivided India, has rightly been the focus of much recent writing about Partition, as this was the province most brutally sliced into two parts in 1947, and was the bloody battlefield of Partition where by far the greatest number of massacres of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims occurred [xv]

 It further goes on to say that:

10 million people on both sides had to move while a million people lost their lives during this carnage.   Individual killings, especially in the most ferociously contested province of Punjab , were frequently accompanied by disfiguration, dismemberment and the rape of women from one community by men of another.[xvi]

 As a result of partition, the Punjabs on both sides were vehemently opposed to any reconciliation and it has been aptly stated that, “These traumas were seared into the regions collective memory”[xvii].

 The contrasting role of the Punjabs within their respective countries:

 Even if both the Punjabs were to forget partition, the other major roadblock to Punjab playing a positive role in Indo-Pak relations was that while Indian Punjab was too small and insignificant to influence policy makers at the national level, Pakistani Punjab had donned the mantle of Pakistani Nationalism [xviii], this phenomenon can be attributed to the complete domination of all political institutions and most importantly the army by Punjab. This point is very well illustrated by the following statistics [xix]:

 Punjabis make up 50 percent of Pakistan 's population and constitute a disproportionate percentage of the army. According to the Brookings Institution's Stephen P. Cohen, 75 percent of the army comes from just three districts in Punjab and two bordering districts in the Northwest Frontier Province . The officer corps, while more urban and diverse, remains disproportionately Punjabi as well.

 Punjab has also been dominating the political set up of Pakistan . Ever since independence, the polity of Pakistan has been dominated by Punjab, this despite the fact that the founder of Pakistan , Mohammed Ali Jinnah was not a Punjabi. This point is illustrated well by the number of Punjabis holding high positions in Pakistani politics, not to forget the Pro-Punjab economic programs of Punjabi politicians like Nawaz Sharif who have been accused of being biased towards the Punjab [xx].

 Apart from complete domination of the army and polity, Punjab has also dominated the Pakistani economy. Just as the Punjabi domination of Pakistan ’s army was a colonial legacy, so was the domination of the Pakistani economy. If one were to point to any specific reason for the “ agrarian structure” of Pakistani Punjab’s economy which was sustaining Pakistan, it is clearly evident that the British built the edifice for an agrarian economy, by introducing massive irrigation projects in the canal colonies (which included Lahore, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts) ostensibly to build up Punjab (which was united at that time) as the bread-basket of India [xxi].

 So one of the ramifications of the above discussed political conditions on both the Punjabs was the complete obliteration of the “common Punjabi history”.  So deep was the schism between both the Punjabs that each side eschewed things which for so long had remained part of a common heritage. This was very much in sync with the “schadenfreude” type of attitude which both India and Pakistan had towards each other. As a consequence the two halves have been frozen apart by the international border that runs between them[xxii]

 A good illustration of the above  mentioned point, is the complete neglect of the Punjabi language in Pakistani Punjab. For a long time, Punjabi was neglected and not taught at the school or college level of Pakistani Punjab, it is only recently that institutions for the promotion of the Punjabi language have been set up . There are two reasons for this, for the Pakistani Punjabi, speaking any language other then Urdu including “Punjabi, means compromising with his “Pakistani Nationalism”. Secondly, Punjabi is thought to be a language of menials[xxiii].

   The Indian establishment has been traditionally dominated by Non-Punjabis

 While Pakistani polity has been dominated by Punjabi leaders, India got its first Punjabi Prime Minister in Inder Kumar Gujral (although India had already had a Punjabi President in Giani Zail Singh) who developed a good rapport with his Pakistani counterpart Mian Mohammed Nawaz Sharif. The reason amongst others was  the fact that [xxiv]

 Gujral and Sharif share an ironic connection to what is today India and Pakistan . Gujral, was born in Jhelum, a city in the Pakistani part of Punjab . His father was a politician there and became a member of Pakistan 's first legislature. Sharif is much younger -- 48. His father was born in Amritsar , a major city in Indian Punjab . Their families might have passed each other in the night as they traded places as part of a mass migration when partition of the subcontinent turned bloody. The mother tongue of both is Punjabi.

 Similarly, ever since Manmohan Singh took charge of office, there was an increase in East Punjab-West Punjab interactions, (though ironically the Pakistani President, General Musharraf is a Non-Punjabi). While, this in no way implies that other Prime Ministers do not understand the significance of a cordial, amicable relationship between the Punjabs- for example Atal Behari Vajpayee initiated some path breaking peace initiatives, yet to understand the significance of “Punjab-Punjab” interaction, being Punjabi does matter as the earlier thrust was merely on Islamabad- Delhi exchanges, while during the tenure of Dr. Manmohan Singh, the governments in Lahore and Chandigarh have been extremely active. A perfect illustration of this point is the one to one meeting between General Musharraf and Captain Amarinder Singh. During Vajpayee’s tenure, Badal did meet the then PM, and the West Punjab CM, but the meetings were not so expansive in agenda[xxv].

  Provincial leaders on both sides, especially the Indian side lacked political stature

 For a long time, there neither of the Punjabs had leaders who could pressurize federal governments to increase interaction between the Punjabs. Leaders always had their insecurities and apprehensions of being labelled “anti-national” or “parochial”. In the last 2-3 years, Chief Minister of both the Punjabs played a stellar role in bringing Punjab on both sides closer. Captain Amarinder Singh, erstwhile Chief Minister of Indian Punjab and Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi, Chief Minister of West Punjab encouraged sports exchanges, cultural exchanges and the frequent passage of delegations on both sides. Captain Amarinder Singh, erstwhile CM of East Punjab, was the first to be pro-active in encouraging exchanges in fact, it might be mentioned that the External Affairs Ministry was not very encouraging to begin with but gradually they realized that the Punjab-Punjab interaction was having a positive impact[xxvi].

 It would now be appropriate, to discuss some of the  important developments with reference to Punjab-Punjab cooperation, in the last few years and more importantly analyze the reasons behind the increasing role of the Punjab in Indo-Pak relations.


Section 4: The emergence of Punjab as an important player and reasons

 Increasingly important role of the Punjab in the last few years:

 Since 2003, interaction between the Punjabs has increased by leaps and bounds. Some of the important developments in the Punjab-Punjab relationship include, visits by Chief Ministers of both sides. Bus services between the cities of Lahore and Amritsar , Amritsar and Nankana Sahib (Nankana Sahib is amongst the holiest of shrines for Sikhs, it is the birthplace of the founder of the Sikh faith). Visits of Sikhs pilgrims  to their holy shrines in West Punjab and the upkeep of Sikh shrines.  The All Punjab Games and more recently  commencement of trade at the Wagah border[xxvii].

One of the most important developments in the last few years has been the acknowledgment by the top leadership in both countries, especially India , that Punjab has a vital role to play in the peace process. One example which may seem symbolic but is a good illustration of the above mentioned point is the “peace treaties” offered by Dr. Manmohan Singh at Amritsar [xxviii] apart from his continuous emphasis on the “Amritsar-Lahore-Kabul” corridor and a statement where he talked about breakfast at Amritsar , lunch at Lahore and dinner at Kabul [xxix].

  Some of the reasons for increasing importance of the Punjabs

 (1)    Civil Society of Punjab has been at the forefront of Indo-Pak peace initiatives:

 People to people contact between the two countries in general and the Punjabs in particular has seen an increase in the last few years. The organizations which have done yeoman’s service to enhance interaction between the two Punjabs are the World Punjabi Congress, South Asian Free Media Association and The Two Punjab Center at Chandigarh. Maximum credit for emphasising the importance of Punjab in the Indo-Pak relationship, goes to track two organizations like the World Punjabi Congress. Led by a former Federal Minister, Fakhar Zaman this organization has been advocating easing out of visa-procedures, opening up trade routes and promotion of Punjabiat [xxx]. In fact even the rapport between the Chief Ministers of both the provinces began as a result of a WPC function organized at Lahore by Zaman in January 2004[xxxi].

 Businessmen from both Punjabs have been lobbying hard with their governments to build an atmosphere of peace:

 Traders and governments of both the Punjabs have time and again reiterated the importance of opening up the borders, as traders from East Punjab perceive, that opening up of the borders will also give them access to the Central Asian markets, while businessmen from West Punjab feel that opening up of trade will also mean access to the large North Indian markets which include Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi. Apart from businessmen, opening up of the borders will also benefit the common Pakistani, as it will give him the opportunity of buying cheaper goods. The following example is  a good illustration of this point:

 A scooter, which costs Rs 25,000 in Amritsar , could be sold for more than Rs 70,000 after crossing the Radcliff Line, which is only 26 km from Amritsar . Cars and other items are much cheaper in Amritsar than in Lahore[xxxii]

 One of the positives of increasing interaction between Punjabis on both sides has been some sort of informal trade, especially between farmers on both sides. One good illustration of this fact is that:

Pakistani farmers have begun to import potato seeds from India, rather than Holland [xxxiii]. The seed from Holland costs Rs. 70 (1.6$) while the seed from Jalandhar (Indian Punjab) costs Rs. 24 (0.59 Cents) [xxxiv]

 Far sighted leadership at both the central level and the federal level:

 Both the Central Leaderships and the provincial leadership have shown immense foresight in encouraging Punjab-Punjab exchanges. A good illustration of this fact is the following statement of the Indian Prime Minister:

 There are many things that the two Punjabs can learn from each other's development experience. We must encourage people-to-people contacts between actors in civil society, between academics, businessmen, artistes, and most importantly, the common people

 Pervez Musharraf has also been all for the interaction between the Punjabs a perfect illustration of this being his meeting with Captain Amarinder Singh and release of prisoners[xxxv].

 The two Chief Ministers have also shown great verve for building bridges between the two Punjabs. Right from the first meeting itself in 2004 till the fall of his government there were continuous interactions. One of the main reasons for the success of the Chief Ministers was a well thought out strategy for Punjab-Punjab Cooperation. This strategy was not too ambitious but well thought out with a balance of both emotion and reality[xxxvi].

 Active role of Punjabi Diaspora in the peace process:

 The Punjabi diaspora from both India and Pakistan has played a stellar role in the thaw between the two Punjabs. Being away from home the diaspora is free from biases. It is important to note that at an individual level, Pakistani Punjabis and Indian Punjabis got along extremely well on foreign shores even when there was tension between the two countries. Back home in the sub-continent, both sides were apprehensive of openly exhibiting any sort of affinity for the other side. The diaspora has played a very constructive role in encouraging the growth of “Punjabiat” or a common culture. It has been correctly observed that[xxxvii]:

 The two Punjabs wield disproportionate influence in their respective countries, and they can call upon a prosperous and culturally active diaspora in the West, which, through the growing popularity of Punjabi musical and cultural events, has begun to carve out a distinct Punjabi sensibility that transcends the national divides back "home."

 Amongst other initiatives of the diaspora, two stand out. The Journal of Punjab Studies, Academy of the Punjab in North America, APNA and The Journal of Punjab Studies started in UK was the first which brought together scholars from both the Punjabs and had articles on the economy, culture and polity of the Punjabs. APNA is amongst the first organizations, to promote Punjabi Culture over the internet. More recently, it has started a  Punjabi magazine called “Lehar” which is published in both scripts, Gurmukhi (East Punjab) and Shahmukhi ( West Punjab )[xxxviii].

  Religious Tourism

 While analyzing the thaw between India and Pakistan and the increasing warmth between the Punjabs, scant attention has been paid to “religious tourism”, i.e increasing pilgrimages to West Punjab by Sikhs. Punjabis from the Pakistani side have been exceedingly warm to their Non-Muslim brethren (mostly Sikhs) from the other side of the Wagah. It is for this reason that feelings such as these have been expressed[xxxix]

“After coming to this side of the border we have no alien feeling as we belonged to this area and you belonged to East Punjab, our forefathers were born and later buried in this land besides it was the land of our Guru and we are here to pay homage and offer rituals especially to celebrate Basaikhi with our Pakistani brothers."

It would be important to mention here, that the West Punjab Government under the aegis of Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi has been making a special effort to improve the upkeep of Sikh shrines in Pakistan .



 The increasing role of the Punjab and its significance for:

 (1) The Punjab

 Revive culture:

 Increasing interaction between the Punjabs will help in reviving the Punjabi language in West Punjab which is totally in a state of neglect. In addition to this, it will also help in re-building the common ethos of “Punjabiat”, where there are common folk tales and heroes. Organizations like the World Punjabi Congress are already doing all what they can to revive Punjabiat.


 As trade begins between the Punjabs, the sagging economy of both sides could be resuscicated. Currently the economy of both the Punjabs is stagnating. Opening up trade between the two provinces will create fresh employment opportunities for youth of both states, open up new trade routes and elevate the status of the Punjabs into pivotal economic hubs [xl].

 In the context of South Asia ’s politics and economics why this is important?

 The New Delhi and Islamabad dominated dialogue have failed to come up with any solution to vexed issues like Kashmir . Maybe sub regions like Punjab , which have positive vested interests in the borders opening up can pressurize central governments. Apart from this Punjab could also be a role model for other sub regions in South Asia [xli]. Over and above anything else, ever since the partition of 1947, there is a feeling that the Muslim-Non Muslim rift is something indelible and permanent [xlii]. If both the Punjabs can lead the way it would be ironic that a region partitioned on the basis of religion acts the “peacemaker” utilizing amongst other tools a common culture.

 In the global context

 Punjabiat in a way is a counter to the “clash of civilizations” notion that Muslims and Non-Muslims will clash. It has been rightly said that [xliii]:

 The increasing interaction between the two Punjabs and ultimately other regions in South Asia could be the prelude to 'a closer understanding and interaction of cultures' and be a reminder that the 'clash of civilizations' theory is a highly exaggerated one. To some degree, this also raises a question as to what is more powerful 'civilisations' as described by Samuel Huntington or 'cultures'.

 In this way, the role of Punjab in South Asian peace is not only of regional importance, but of global significance as it would in many ways challenge the clash of civilizations doctrine, which has become popular after the tragic events of 9/11 and 7/7.


[i] Hansen, Anders B “ Partition and Genocide Manifestation of violence in Punjab, 1937-1947” ( New Delhi , India Research Press),  p. 3

[ii] See Punjab Online Website: Punjab Online Website: (http://www.punjabonline.com)

[iii] For  the feeling of oneness among Punjabis, See Tandon, P “  Punjabi Saga, 1857-2000: The Monumental Story of Five Generations of a Remarkable Punjabi Family” (New Delhi, Rupa and Co)  also see Maini TS “South Asian Cooperation and the Role of the Punjabs” (New Delhi, Siddhartha Publications, 2007) pp. 84-85 for illustrations of the common Punjabi ethos.

[iv] For an understanding of common heroes, see Maini TS (2007), Pg. 86-95.  Ahsan, A  “The Indus Saga: From Pataliputra to Partition” ( New Delhi, Roli, 2006)  pp. 179-192 for an excellent description of Guru Nanak Dev and the Sufis, pp. 400-402, 413-414  for a description of how Bhagat Singh is a hero for both Punjabs and the Indus Region.

[v] For a clear explanation of this point see Ali, I “ The Punjab under imperialism, 1885-1947, ( Karachi , Oxford University Press, 2003)

[vi] See Ahsan, A, p. 11 for an incisive analysis of “Indus Culture”, Maini TS (2007), pp. 84-102  for an understanding of Punjabiat both in the present day and in the pre-partition era.

[vii]Tan Tai Yong “The Garrison State : The Military Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947”, Sage, New Delhi , 2005. Pg. 17

[viii]   Ian Talbot, “The Punjabization of Pakistan : Myth or Reality”? in Christopher Jaffrelot (Ed.) “ Pakistan , Nationalism without a Nation?”( New Delhi , Manohar Publishers, 2004) p. 55

[ix] See Maini, TS (2007) p. 26

[x] Ibid pp.24-25

 [xi] Ayres, A “ The Two Punjabs: A cultural path to peace in South Asia”, World Policy Journal, Volume 22, Number 4, Winter 2005- 2006, pp 63-68, see p. 63

[xii] See Ahsan, A (2006) p. 25

[xiii] See Maini, TS (2007) pp. 25 for the above discussed points. Interview (on 8th September 2006) with Mr. Tahir Malik, a senior Pakistani journalist was very important to understand the complete domination of the Pakistani set up by Punjabis. For an understanding of this point, also see, “ Need to understand mindset of Punjabis, on both sides says Pakistani expert”, The Tribune, February 10th 2006 and Ayres, A “The Two Punjabs: A cultural path to peace in South Asia ”, p.67

 [xiv] This was one of the important conclusions I drew during the course of my research for the book “South Asian Cooperation and the Role of the Punjabs”.

[xv] Yasmin Khan(2007) “The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan ” ( New Delhi , Penguin, 2007) p. 7

[xvi]See ibid, pg.6

[xvii] Ayres, A “ The Two Punjabs: A cultural path to peace in South Asia ”, p.64

 [xviii] Ian Talbot, “The Punjabization of Pakistan : Myth or Reality”? p. 52

[xix] Ayres, A “ The Two Punjabs: A cultural path to peace in South Asia ”, p.67

 [xx] Ian Talbot, “The Punjabization of Pakistan : Myth or Reality”? p.52

 [xxi] Ibid, p.55, Ali, I “ The Punjab under imperialism, 1885-1947”, also see Tan Tai Yong, “The Garrison State: The Military Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947”, p.17

 [xxii] See Ayres, A, p. 63

[xxiii] See Maini, TS, “ South Asian Cooperation and the Role of the Punjabs”, pg. 144

[xxiv]  Healy, Tim and Ranawana, Arjuna “ A clean slate: The most important relationship in South Asia gets a fresh start” Asia Week, 23rd May 97, see: http://www.asiaweek.com/asiaweek/97/0523/nat1.html

[xxv] Having been through the pangs of partition the Prime Minister realizes the importance of Punjab-Punjab reconciliation and cooperation.

[xxvi] Maini, TS, p. 118-120

[xxvii] See Ibid, p. 67-82

[xxviii] For Dr. Manmohan Singh’s offer of friendship to Pakistan , See The Indian Express “ Borders cannot be redrawn but we can make them irrelevant”, March 25th 2006 also see The Times of India “ PM flags off Amritsar-Nankana Sahib bus” March 24th 2006

[xxix] The Indian Express “Breakfast in Amritsar , lunch in Lahore ”, January 9th 2007

[xxx]See Maini, TS, p. 96 for initiatives of the World Punjabi Congress

[xxxi] Ibid p. 27 for the

[xxxii] See Walia, V “ Amritsar awaits export boom”, The Tribune, November 25th 2004

[xxxiii] See Maini TS (2007) ,p.105

[xxxiv][xxvii][xx] See Ibid

[xxxv] Dhaliwal, S “pervez orders release of 83 detainees”, The Tribune, March 16th 2005

[xxxvi]  Interview with Captain Amarinder Singh, erstwhile Chief Minister of East Punjab on 25th May 2006 at New Delhi .

[xxxvii] See Ayres, A, p.68

[xxxviii] Maini TS (2007”, p. 123-125

[xxxix] Bhatti, A “Sikh Pilgrims feel at home in Pakistan ”, The News, Lahore , April 4th 2007

[xli] Rajamohan, C “Balle-Balle at Mohali” The Indian Express March 8th 2005

[xlii] See Ahsan, A “ The Indus Saga” for an excellent exposition of the Muslim-Non Muslim divide in South Asia , especially p.12

[xliii] Maini, TS “Punjab-Punjab Cooperation” , South Asian Journal, Volume 8, April-June 2005, pp 91-101, SAFMA, Lahore, p.101


Back To APNA Home Page